Lubricating oil generally consists of two parts: base oil and additives. The base oil is the main component of the lubricating oil, which determines the basic properties of the lubricating oil. Additives can make up for and improve the deficiencies in the performance of the base oil, and give certain new properties.
Lubricant base oils are mainly divided into three categories: mineral base oils, synthetic base oils and biological base oils. Mineral base oils are widely used and used in large amounts (about 95% or more), but in some applications, products based on synthetic base oils and bio-oil base oils must be used, so these two base oils have developed rapidly.
Mineral oil base oil is refined. The main production processes of lubricating base oil are: atmospheric and vacuum distillation, solvent deasphalting, solvent refining, solvent dewaxing, white clay or hydrogenation refining. In 1995, China's current standards for lubricant base oils were revised. The classification method was modified, and two types of low-coagulation and deep-refined special base oil standards were added. The production of mineral lubricants is important.
The chemical composition of mineral base oils includes high boiling point, high molecular weight hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon mixtures. Its composition is generally alkane (linear, branched, multi-branched), cycloalkane (monocyclic, bicyclic, polycyclic), aromatic hydrocarbon (monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon), cycloalkyl aromatic hydrocarbon, and oxygen-containing, nitrogen-containing , Sulfur-containing organic compounds and non-hydrocarbon compounds such as gums and asphaltenes. Biological base oil (vegetable oil) is becoming more and more popular, it can biodegrade and rapidly reduce environmental pollution. As all industrial companies in the world are seeking measures to reduce environmental pollution, this "natural" lubricating oil is possessing this feature. Although the cost of vegetable oil is high, the added cost is enough to offset the use of other mineral oils and synthetic lubrication. Environmental governance costs from oil. Classification according to the nature and processing technology:
Divided into paraffin base oil, intermediate base oil, naphthenic base oil